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我要做題網門戶英語 › 模擬試題 › 查看內容

2020年4月7日考研英語范文閱讀模擬試題及答案解析(三)

2020-4-7 10:49| 發布者: admin| 查看數: 626| 評論數: 0|來自: 正保考研教育網

摘要:  Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publisher\'s pipelines. A few have already appeared. The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unen ...

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 Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publisher\'s pipelines. A few have already appeared. The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life. Cosmology, geology, and biology have provided a consistent, unified, and constantly improving account of what happened. Scientific creationism, which is being pushed by some for equal time in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given, is based on religion, not science. Virtually all scientists and the majority of non-fundamentalist religious leaders have come to regard scientific creationism as bad science and bad religion.
  
  The first four chapters of Kitcher\'s book give a very brief introduction to evolution. At appropriate places, he introduces the criticisms of the creationists and provides answers. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programmes and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise. When their basic motivation is religious, one might have expected more Christian behavior.
  
  Kitcher is philosopher, and this may account, in part, for the clarity and effectiveness of his arguments. The non-specialist will be able to obtain at least a notion of the sorts of data and argument that support evolutionary theory. The final chapter on the creationists will be extremely clear to all. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: This book stands for reason itself. And so it does-and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.
  
  67. Creationism in the passage refers to ________.
  
  (A)evolution in its true sense as to the origin of the universe
  
  (B)a notion of the creation of religion
  
  (C)the scientific explanation of the earth formation
  
  (D)the deceptive theory about the origin of the universe
  
  68. Kitcher\'s book is intended to ________.
  
  (A)recommend the views of the evolutionists
  
  (B)expose the true features of creationists
  
  (C)curse bitterly at this opponents
  
  (D)launch a surprise attack on creationists
  
  69. From the passage we can infer that ________.
  
  (A)reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate
  
  (B)creationists do not base their argument on reasoning
  
  (C)evolutionary theory is too difficult for non-specialists
  
  (D)creationism is supported by scientific findings
  
  70. This passage appears to be a digest of ________.
  
  (A)a book review
  
  (B)a scientific paper
  
  (C)a magazine feature
  
  (D)a newspaper editorial
  
  答案及試題解析
  
  67.(D)

  意為:關于宇宙起源的虛假理論。
  
  在本文中,作者將造物主義理論(或創世主義理論)與進化論對立而論,指出前者的基礎是宗教而不是科學,而且,幾乎所有的科學家和大部分非原教旨主義宗教領袖都越來越將所謂科學的造物主義理論看做既不是好科學也不是好的宗教。Kitcher的書對造物主義理論進行了深刻的批判。參閱第一段。
  
  A意為:有關宇宙起源的真正意義上的進化論。
  
  B意為:宗教創立的思想。
  
  C意為:地球形成的科學解釋。
  
  68.(B)

  意為:揭露了造物主義理論的真實面目。
  
  第二段指出,他利用合適的機會(at appropriate places)對造物主義理論進行了批判。在最后三章,他摘掉了手套,將造物主義者狠狠地揍了一頓。他描述了他們的綱領及(騙人)手段,對那些不了解他們的把戲的人來說,(Kitcher所揭露出的)他們的欺騙程度和歪曲程度會令人感到吃驚和厭惡。考慮到他們的基本動機是宗教的,人們也許期望在他們身上看到更多的基督徒行為(但他們欺騙人民、歪曲事實)。
  
  A意為:推崇進化論的觀點。Kitcher的確推崇進化論,但從書的章節安排來看,本書更著重于對造物主義的批判。
  
  C意為:狠狠地咒罵了他的對手。
  
  D意為:對造物主義者發起了突然襲擊。
  
  69.(B)

  意為:造物主義的論點不是建立在推理之上的。
  
  參閱第67題題解。文章最后一句指出,它的確代表了理性本身,如果理性是造物主義理論與進化論之爭的惟一裁判者,問題就容易解決了。本句是一個虛擬條件句,等于說:all would be well if reason were the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.
  
  A意為:在這場爭論中,推理起了決定性作用。注意:reason(理性)與reasoning(推理)意思不同。
  
  C意為:對專家以外的人來說,進化論太難。第三段第二句指出,不是專家至少也能了解一下支持進化論的數據的性質及其論點。
  
  D意為:科學發現支持了造物主義理論。
  
  70.(A)
  
  本文是一個書評摘要。這從第二、三段就可以一目了然。
  
  B意為:科學論文。
  
  C意為:雜志特寫。
  
  D意為:報紙社論。
  
  翻譯句子
  
  1、In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programs and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise.
  
  [參考譯文] 在最后三章中,他脫下手套,將神造論者好好地揍了一頓。他描述了他們的活動和戰術,而且,對于那些對神造論者的做事方式不熟悉的人來說,神造論者的欺騙和扭曲事實的程度可能會令這些人有一種不快的詫異。
  
  [結構剖析] 第一句話的主體結構是…he takes off…and gives…,第二句是 and 連接的兩個并列句。在第二個分句中,前面插入了一個介詞詞組 for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists,其中 unfamiliar 相當于省略了 who are 的定語從句,修飾 those。
  
  [閱讀重點] 第一句話中,作者把寫書比喻成拳擊,因而要抨擊神造說/特創論的時候,用了 takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating 這樣的句子。第二句中,關鍵要弄清楚 their programs and tactics, their deception and distortion 中的兩個 their 指代的都是 creationists,而不是指那些對神造論者的處事方式不熟悉的人。
  
  2、On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: This book stands for reason itself. And so it does-and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.
  
  [參考譯文] 在這本杰出的書的外紙封面上,史蒂芬?杰伊?古爾德寫道:這本書本身就代表理性。而它確實是這樣的-而且如果理性成為神造論/進化論之間的辯論中的惟一評判標準的話,一切就都好辦了。
  
  [結構剖析] 第一句話中是主語+謂語動詞+直接引語。第二句表示對第一句中的觀點的贊同,破折號后作進一步解釋;其中隱含一個 if 引導的狀語從句表示虛擬語氣。在正式的文體中,倒裝可以用來代替 if 引導的表示假設的狀語從句。were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate 相當于 if reason were the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate。
  
  [閱讀重點] 注意 so it does 的用法:so+主語+助動詞,表示對前面表述的觀點的贊同,注意這一結構與 so+助動詞+主語 結構的區別。后者表示也的意思,只用在肯定句當中。另外應注意破折號后解釋部分中的條件句里時態的運用:if 條件狀語從句中使用過去時 were,主句中用過去將來時 would do,是作出與現在事實相反的假設。
  
  補充難句翻譯
  
  ①The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life.
  
  [參考譯文] 所有這些書的目的都是要努力向迷惑而且通常還沒有被啟發的普通民眾解釋:不可能有兩種同樣站得住腳的關于宇宙和生命的起源和演化的科學理論同時存在。
  
  [結構剖析] 句子的主干結構是 The goal… will be to try to explain…,其中 explain 后面接的是雙賓語:explain to sb. sth.,這里 sth. 是 that 引導的賓語從句 there are not…。
  
  [閱讀重點] all 指代上文提到的書籍,要注意 origin 和 evolution 是并列的,而universe 和 life 是并列的。而 confused 和 unenlightened 也是并列的。
  
  ②Scientific creationism, which is being pushed by some for equal time in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given, is based on religion, not science.
  
  [參考譯文] 科學的神造說/特創論-不論什么時候談到進化的科學解釋的時候,某些人就會要求在教室里獲得同等的時間來解釋這一學說-是以宗教為基礎的,而不是以科學為基礎。
  
  [結構剖析] 句子的主體結構是… creationism is based… on religion, not science,其中which 引導了一個非限定性定語從句 which is being pushed by some for equal time in the classroom…修飾 creationism,在這一定語從句中,whenever 引導了一個時間狀語從句 whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given。
  
  [閱讀重點] 首先要理解非限定性定語從句的用法,另外,在閱讀中可以先跳過非限定性定語從句,只看句子的主干。
  
  語言點詳解
  
  1. creationism 神造說,特創論(一種反進化論的學說)
  
  2. rumor has it 據傳言說

  [大綱詞匯] rumor/ rumour n.傳聞,謠言

  [經典例句] Rumor has it that more than 20 people died in the accident.
  
  3. pipeline 供應線

  [大綱詞匯] pipeline n.管道,管線
  
  4. unenlighted 未受啟蒙的

  [大綱詞匯] enlighten v.啟發,啟蒙,教導

  [衍生詞匯] enlightened a.開明的,有知識的,文明的 enlightening a.有啟迪作用的enlightenment n.開明,啟發 unenlightened a.未受啟發的,愚昧無知的,落后的

  [經典例句] He regarded most people as unenlightened.
  
  5. citizenry 老百姓 

  [大綱詞匯] citizen n.公民;市民,平民

  [衍生詞匯] citizenry n.〔總稱〕公民;市民;老百姓
  
  6. cosmology 宇宙論

  [大綱詞匯] cosmic a.宇宙的

  [衍生詞匯] cosmology n.宇宙論,宇宙哲學
  
  7. geology 地質學

  [大綱詞匯] geology n.地質學
  
  5. biology 生物學

  [大綱詞匯] biology n.生物學
  
  9. consistent 前后一致的

  [大綱詞匯] consistent a.(with)前后一致的,始終如一的

  [經典例句] What he said was consistent with what he did.
  
  10. unified 統一的

  [大綱詞匯] unify n.使聯合;使同意;使相同,使一致 



  [經典例句] It is their strong wish that the country should be unified.

  11. constantly

  [大綱詞匯] constant a.經常的,不斷的;堅定的;永恒的;忠實的

  [衍生詞匯] constantly ad.經常地,不斷地

  [經典例句] The world is changing constantly.
  
  12. virtually 實際上 

  [大綱詞匯] virtual a.實際上的,事實上的

  [衍生詞匯] virtually ad實際上,事實上

  [經典例句] The city virtually disappeared in the tornado.
  
  13. majority 大多數

  [大綱詞匯] major a.(較)大的,(較)重要的 n.專業,主修科目;專業學生,少校v. (in)主修,專攻 majority n.多數,大多數

  [經典例句] The majority of the Senate voted against the motion.
  
  14. nonfundamentalist 非原教旨主義者

  [大綱詞匯] fundamental a.基礎的,基本的;n.[pl.]基本原則,基本原理

  [衍生詞匯] fundamentalist n.原教旨主義者 nonfundamentalist n.非原教旨主義者
  
  15. glve an introduction to 介紹……
  
  [大綱詞匯] introduction n.(to)介紹;傳入,引進;導言,導論,緒論

  [經典例句] The mayor give his guest a brief introduction to his city.
  
  16.appropriate適當的[大綱詞匯] appropriate a. (to)適當的,恰如其分的[經典例句] He intended to propose his plan in appropriate time.
  
  17. take off 脫下

  [大綱詞匯] takeoff 拿走;脫下;起飛

  [經典例句] He helped the old lady to take off her coat.
  
  15. give…a good beating 把…痛打一頓

  [大綱詞匯] beat v.打,敲;打敗,戰勝;(心臟等)跳動,搏動 n.敲打,敲擊聲,節拍;(心臟等)跳動,搏動

  [衍生詞匯] beating n.拍打,捶打;打敗

  [經典例句] The Russian troop gave a good beating to their enemy.
  
  19. tactics 策略

  [大綱詞匯] tactics n.策略,戰術

  [經典例句] This is a fairly common tactics among junior executive.
  
  20. extent 程度

  [大綱詞匯] extent n.廣度,寬度,長度;程度,限度

  [經典例句] What he did exceeded the extent of his authority.
  
  21. deception 欺騙

  [大綱詞匯] deceive v.欺騙,蒙蔽

  [衍生詞匯] deception n.欺騙,蒙蔽

  [經典例句] He was furious at the deception of his friends.
  
  22. distortion 歪曲

  [大綱詞匯] distort v.歪曲,扭曲

  [衍生詞匯] distortion n.歪曲,扭曲,變形

  [經典例句] What we have heard is a total distortion of facts.
  
  23. motivation 動力

  [大綱詞匯] motive n.動機,目的

  [衍生詞匯] motivation n.提供動機;動力,誘因,刺激

  [經典例句] The child has not found any motivation for learning.
  
  24. philosopher 哲學家

  [大綱詞匯] philosopher n.哲學家,哲人 philosophy n.哲學
  
  25. in part 部分來說

  [經典例句] He failed in part because of his carelessness.
  
  26. clarity 清晰

  [大綱詞匯] clarity n.清晰,明晰 clarify v.澄清,闡明

  [經典例句] I remembered the scene with complete clarity.
  
  27. effectiveness 有效

  [大綱詞匯] effective a.有效的,生效的

  [衍生詞匯] effectiveness n.有效

  [經典例句] No one doubts the effectiveness of the drug.
  
  28. nonspecialist 非專家

  [大綱詞匯] specialist n.專家 specialize v. ( in)專攻,專門研究,專業化 

  specialty n.特性,特質;專業,專長

  [衍生詞匯] nonspecialist非專家
  
  29. notion 概念

  [大綱詞匯] notion n.概念,想法,意念,看法,觀點

  [經典例句] Her notion of rural life is a lot of sunshine and fun.
  
  30. dust jacket 包在書外起保護和裝飾作用的紙封面
  
  31. in its true sense 真正意義上的

  [經典例句] His behavior in its true sense has showed his indifference to others.
  
  32. opponent 反對者

  [大綱詞匯] opponent n.對手,反對者,敵手;a. 二對立的,對抗的

  [經典例句] His opponents claimed that he had accepted bribes.
  
  33. book review 書評

  [大綱詞匯] review v.回顧;復習;n.回顧;復習;評論

  [經典例句] His performance got mixed reviews.
  
  34. editorial 社論

  [大綱詞匯] editorial n.社論
  
  全文翻譯
  
  有傳言說,有20多本關于創世紀論與進化論之爭的書即將出版,有幾本已經面世了。所有這些書的目的是試圖告訴那些迷糊而且常常是還不開通的蕓蕓眾生:就宇宙和生命的起源與發展問題而言,不可能存在兩種都成立的科學理論。對于所發生的一切,宇宙學、地質學、生物學已經提供了一貫的、統一的并且是在不斷完善的解釋。而科學創世紀論-當課堂上講授進化論時,有些人就想爭搶相同的課時來解釋它-是基于宗教,而非科學的。實際上,所有科學家和大多數非原教旨主義宗教領袖們都已將科學創世紀論看作是拙劣的科學和拙劣的宗教。
  
  金切爾這本書的前四章簡單地介紹了進化論。作者在合適的地方引入了對創世紀論者的批評并提供了后者的回答。在書的后三章,他毫不客氣地對創世紀論者進行了猛烈抨擊。他揭露了這些人的綱領和手段,對那些不了解創世紀論者慣用手法的人來說,其欺騙和歪曲事實的程度會讓他們感到氣憤和吃驚。由于他們的基本動機是宗教,人們原本還期待他們會做出更具基督精神的作為。
  
  金切爾是位哲學家,這也許能部分說明他的立論為何明確而有說服力。非專業人士起碼可以了解支持進化論的各種數據和觀點。關于創世紀論者的最后一章對每個人來說都闡述得極為清楚。這部優秀作品的護封上引用了斯蒂芬·杰·古爾德的一句話,本書賭注是理性。的確如此-如果理性是創世紀論和進化論之爭的惟一裁判,一切問題就已解決了。


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