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我要做題網門戶英語 › 模擬試題 › 查看內容

2020年4月7日考研英語范文閱讀模擬議試題及答案解析(四

2020-4-7 10:44| 發布者: admin| 查看數: 607| 評論數: 0|來自: 正保考研教育網

摘要: Personality is to a large extent inherent-A-type parents usually bring about A-type offspring. But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, i ...

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Personality is to a large extent inherent-A-type parents usually bring about A-type offspring. But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.
  
  One place where children soak up A characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. Too many schools adopt the win at all costs moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows. Being too keen to win can have dangerous consequences: remember that Pheidippides, the first marathon runner, dropped dead seconds after saying: Rejoice, we conquer!
  
  By far the worst form of competition in schools is the disproportionate emphasis on examinations. It is a rare school that allows pupils to concentrate on those things they do well. The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.
  
  Obviously, it is neither practical nor desirable that all A youngsters change into B\'s. The world needs types, and schools have an important duty to try to fit a child\'s personality to his possible future employment. It is top management.
  
  If the preoccupation of schools with academic work was lessened, more time might be spent teaching children surer values. Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by good grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy. It is surely a mistake to choose our doctors exclusively from A- type stock. B\'s are important and should be encouraged.
  
  63. According to the passage, A-type individuals are usually ________.
  
  (A)impatient  (B)considerate  (C)aggressive  (D)agreeable
  
  64. The author is strongly opposed to the practice of examinations at schools because ________.
  
  (A)the pressure is too great on the students
  
  (B)some students are bound to fail
  
  (C)failure rates are too high
  
  (D)the results of examinations are doubtful
  
  65. The selection of medical professionals is currently based on ________.
  
  (A)candidates\' sensitivity  (B)academic achievements
  
  (C)competitive spirit        (D)surer values
  
  66. From the passage we can draw the conclusion that ________.
  
  (A)the personality of a child is well established at birth
  
  (B)family influence dominates the shaping of one\'s characteristics
  
  (C)the development of one\'s personality is due to multiple factors
  
  (D)B-type characteristics can find no place in a competitive society
  
  答案及試題解析
  
  63.(C)
  
  意為:攻擊性的,好斗的。
  
  文章第一、二、三段都提到:A型性格的人在競爭的環境中成長,形成了他們的性格特征。第二段第三句直接用competitive(爭強好勝的,愛競爭的)一詞描述A型性格的人。
  
  A意為:缺乏耐心的、不耐心的。這也許是他們有時候所表現出的性格特征,但不是他們的一般性性格特征。
  
  B意為:體貼人的,為人著想的。這與事實形成鮮明的對比。
  
  D意為:和藹的,易相處的,使人愉快的。
  
  64.(B)

  意為:有些學生肯定不及格。
  
  be bound to意為:肯定、注定。問題中be opposed意為反對。第三段指出,學校中最糟糕的競爭方式(by far用于強調最高級形式)是極力強調考試(disproportionate意為:不相稱的,過分的),很少有學校讓學生集中精力做自己善于做的事情。通過考試來競爭有無益處(merits)是個值得探討的問題(questionable),但是,明知道自己會失敗還去競爭的做法肯定(對人的心理,如:自信心、自我認識等)是有害的。
  
  A意為:給學生造成的壓力過大。
  
  C意為:不及格率過高。
  
  (A)、(C)文中都末提到。
  
  D意為:考試成績(或結果)值得懷疑。
  
  這與原文表達的內容不一樣,原文并非是說考試成績是否真正反映學生的真實水平或能力值得懷疑,而是說考試這種形式作為—個教學環節是否合適值得進一步探討。
  
  65.(B)
  
  原文最后一段指出,如果學校不過多地注重于(preoccupation…… with)學習結果,就可以花更多的時間教些更有價值的東西。選擇護理方面的人-尤其是醫療護理人員-也許應該看他們是否心細、是否有同情心,而不應看他們化學成績如何。只從A型性格的人中選擇醫生的做法是不可取的,B型性格的人也是社會所需要的,應該受到相應的鼓勵。在這段里。作者對現在人的培養及選擇標準進行了批評。B意為:學習成績(或學術成就)。問題中currently意為:目前,當前。
  
  A意為:申請者的敏感程度。指:他是否對他人的行為敏感,即是否細心。
  
  C意為:競爭精神。原文是說根據成績,即:看重的是結果。
  
  D意為:更可靠的價值。即:更可靠或可依賴或有價值(對社會有用)的東西。
  
  66.(C)
  
  文章第一段指出,個性在很大程度上是先天形成的(inherent),但是,環境對它也有深刻影響,環境包括社會、學校與家庭。本文主要談論了學校教育對學生的性格形成的影響。C意為:個性的發展受多種(multiple)因素的影響。
  
  A意為:兒童的個性在出生時早已確立。
  
  B意為:家庭對兒童性格特征的形成起主導作用。
  
  (A)、(B)兩個選擇項都不正確,因為,這兩種說法都是片面的、極端的。兒童的個性發展受多種因素的影響。
  
  D意為:在高度競爭的社會中,B型性格的人是不需要的(或是找不到位置的)。這正是作者想要駁斥的觀點。作者指出:世界需要各種性格的人。另請參閱第65題題解。
  
  翻譯句子
  
  1、But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.
  
  [參考譯文] 但環境也一定對其有深刻的影響,因為如果競爭對父母來說很重要的話,那它也可能成為孩子生活中的一個重要因素。
  
  [結構剖析] 本句的主干是… the environment must also have a profound effect。后面的since 引導一個原因狀語從句,而這個從句又是一個 if 引導的條件主從復合句。
  
  [閱讀重點] 注意 profound 的詞義為意義深遠的。另外要看到最后一個逗號后面的 it所指代的是 competition。
  
  2、The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.
  
  [參考譯文] 通過考試進行競爭本身的優點就有些讓人懷疑,但是如果在明知注定要失敗的情況下還要競爭就肯定是有害的了。
  
  [結構剖析] 本句由兩個子句構成,中間有一個 but 表示意思的轉折。
  
  [閱讀重點] 要正確理解本句,重點在于抓住單詞的正確意思。questionable 可疑的,值得疑問的;而后面的 knowledge 如果理解成知識那么這句話就怎么也看不懂了,在這里它的意思應該是知道,知曉,因此 in the knowledge of 應被理解為在了解……的情況下。
  
  3、Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy.
  
  [參考譯文] 也許對從事照顧他人的職業,特別是醫療事業(從業人員)的選擇應該更少地基于化學成績而更多地基于對敏感個性和同情心的考慮。
  
  [結構剖析] 本句的主干是… selection…could be made less by… and more by…。兩個逗號隔開的是對于 caring professions 的進一步具體說明。
  
  [閱讀重點] 注意在閱讀的時候抓住 less… and more…的結構,同時注意 more 后面的可能要更加重要一些。
  
  補充難句翻譯
  
  1、The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows.

  [參考譯文] 現在這種讓孩子們和其同學或時間競爭的熱情導致了一個雙層結構,在這個結構里面善于競爭的A類好像在某個方面要比他們B類的同輩更勝一籌。
  
  [結構剖析] 本句的主干是 The current passion… produces a two-layer system;passion后面的介詞 for 的賓語比較復雜,是一個 make sb. do sth. 的結構,而主句的賓語 a two-layer system 后面有一個非限定性的定語從句。
  
  [閱讀重點] 可以先抓主干,然后再分析其它成分,另外在理解的時候也要有一定的想象力,比如 compete against the clock 不能從字面上理解為和鐘表競爭,而應該理解成與時間競爭/和時間賽跑。
  
  2、One place where children soak up A characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution.

  [參考譯文] 孩子們吸收A類個性的地方是學校。就學校的本質而言,它是一個高度競爭的機構。
  
  [結構剖析] 本句的主干是 One place…is school,這個簡單句的主語和謂語都有一個定語從句修飾,前面的是限定性的,后面的是非限定性的,并且在其里面還有一個插入成分 by its very nature。
  
  [閱讀重點] 可以先抓主干,然后再分析那兩個定語從句,另外注意 soak up 的意思是吸收,攝取,其實即使我們不是很清楚這個詞組的意思,只要我們抓住 soak 的基本意思浸泡,浸濕,浸透,詞組的意思也能猜出來。
  
  語言點詳解
  
  1. to a large extent 在很大程度上

  [大綱詞匯] extent n.廣度,寬度,長度;程度,限度

  [經典例句] His attitude will influence the result to a large extent.
  
  2. inherent 天生的

  [大綱詞匯] inherent a.固有的,內在的,天生的 inherit v.繼承

  [經典例句] Parents should be waken to the inherent nature of their children.
  
  3. bring about 造成

  [大綱詞匯] bring about 帶來,造成

  [經典例句] The new policy brought about many improvements in the employment of women.
  
  4. offspring 后代

  [大綱詞匯] offspring n.子孫,后代;結果,產物
  
  5. profound 深刻的

  [大綱詞匯] profound a.深刻的,意義深遠的;淵博的,造詣深的

  [經典例句] The city has undergone a profound change in the past few years.
  
  6. soak up 吸收

  [大綱詞匯] soak v.浸泡,浸濕,浸透

  [經典例句] The earth soaks up rainwater.
  
  7. sport achievements 夸耀成就

  [大綱詞匯] sport n.運動;pl.運動會 sportsman n.運動員

  [擴充詞義] sport v.炫耀,夸示

  [經典例句] The young man sported a roll of money his father gave him to his friends.
  
  8. compete against 和…競爭

  [大綱詞匯] compete v.比賽;競爭 competent a.有能力的,勝任的 competitin n.比賽;競爭 competitive a.競爭的,比賽的 competitor n.競爭者,對手

  [經典例句] He competed with other fellow colleagues for the position.
  
  9. keen 熱衷于

  [大綱詞匯] keen a.鋒利的;敏銳的;敏捷的;(on)熱心的,渴望的

  [經典例句] He is very keen to visit China.
  
  10. consequece 后果

  [大綱詞匯] consequence n.結果,后果,影響;重要性 in consequence因此,結果 in consequence of 由于…的緣故 consequently ad.因而,所以

  [經典例句] Your mistake will surely bring about unfavorable consequence.
  
  11. marathon 馬拉松長跑
  
  12. rejoice 高興

  [大綱詞匯] rejoice v.(使)欣喜,(使)高興

  [經典例句] He rejoiced at his friend\'s good fortune.
  
  13. conquer 戰勝

  [大綱詞匯] conquer v.征服,戰勝,占領;克服,破除(壞習慣)conquest n.征服

  [經典例句] Napoleon conquered a number of European countries in a few years.
  
  14. by far …最…
  
  [大綱詞匯] by far…得多,最

  [經典例句] His explanation is clear by far.
  
  15. disproportionate 不成比例的

  [大綱詞匯] proportion n.比例;部分,份兒;均衡,相稱 in proportion 與…成比例的

  [衍生詞匯] proportionate a.成比例的;均衡的,相稱的 disproportionate a.不成比例的,不相稱的

  [經典例句] A disproportionate number of fatal accidents take place at night.
  
  16. emphasis on 強調

  [大綱詞匯] emphasis n.強調,重點 emphasize v.強調

  [經典例句] The teacher lay emphasis on the importance of the assignment.
  
  17. concentrate on 專注于

  [大綱詞匯] concentrate v.(on)集中,專心;濃縮;n.濃縮物 concentration n.集中;專心,專注

  [經典例句] He concentrates solely on law studies.
  
  18. merit 優點

  [大綱詞匯] merit n.優點,價值,功績;v.值得,應得

  [經典例句] The new method has few merits.
  
  19. questionable 可疑的

  [大綱詞匯] question n.問題,議題;發問,詢問 v.詢問,審問;懷疑,對…表示疑問 in question 正在考慮 questionable a.可疑的,不可靠的

  [經典例句] The accuracy of the news is questionable.
  
  20. in the knowledge of 在了解…的情況下

  [大綱詞匯] know v.知道,了解;認識,熟悉;精通 know as 被認為是

  knowledge n.知識,學問;知道,了解

  [經典例句] He felt safe in the knowledge of his enemy\'s death.
  
  21. change into 變為

  [大綱詞匯] change n.變換,調換,交換,互換;改變,變化 v.改變,變化;零錢,找頭

  [經典例句] Water change into ice at zero degree.
  
  22. fit …to 與……相稱

  [大綱詞匯] fit v.使適合,使配合,適應;安裝,裝配 a. (for,to)適合的,恰當的;健康的,強健的 fitting a.適當的,恰當的;n. [pl.]配件,附件;裝配,安裝

  [經典例句] One should fit his action to the world.
  
  23. personality 性格

  [大綱詞匯] person n.人;本人,自身 in person 親自 personal a.個人的,私人的;親自的,本人的;身體的,人身的 personality n.人格,個性

  [經典例句] Environment shapes personality.
  
  24. preoccupation 主要關心的事

  [大綱詞匯] occupy v.占,占用;占據,占領;使忙碌,使從事

  [衍生詞匯] occupation n.從事;工作 preoccupy v.使全神貫注,使入神;搶先占有

  preoccupation n.搶先占有;全神貫注;使人全神貫注的事

  [經典例句] Environmental protection is clearly their main preoccupation.
  
  25. academic 學術的

  [大綱詞匯] academic a.學院的,學術的 academy n.學院,研究會,學術團體

  [經典例句] The professor puts greater emphasis on academic studies.
  
  26. lessen 減輕

  [大綱詞匯] lessen v.減少,減輕

  [詞匯比較] lesson n.功課;教訓

  [經典例句] The latest news lessened their worries.
  
  27. caring profession 照顧他人的職業
  
  28. consideration 考慮

  [大綱詞匯] consider v.認為,把…看作;考慮,細想;體諒,照顧 considerable a.相當大(或多)的,可觀的,值得考慮的 considerate a.考慮周到的,體諒的

  consideration n.需要考慮的事,理由;考慮,思考;體諒,照顧

  [經典例句] The matter is receiving the serious consideration of the board.
  
  29. sensitivity 敏感

  [大綱詞匯] sensitive a. (to)sensitivity n.

  [經典例句] The machine must be used with care considering its sensitivity.
  
  30. sympathy 同情心

  [大綱詞匯] sympathy n.同情,同情心,贊同 sympathetic a.同情的,共鳴的sympathize v.(with)同情,憐憫;共鳴,同感

  [經典例句] Those people need our help and sympathy.
  
  31. exclusively 僅僅

  [大綱詞匯] exclusive a.專有的,獨占的;除外的,排他的 exclusively ad.僅僅;專門地,排他地

  [經典例句] The article was written exclusively for Newsweek.
  
  32. stock 某一類的人

  [大綱詞匯] stock n.備料,庫存,現貨;股票,公債,存儲 in stock現有,備有

  [擴充詞義] stock n.祖先,世系,家族,類

  [經典例句] He descended from Jewish stock.
  
  33. aggressive 有進取心的

  [大綱詞匯] aggressive a.

  [衍生詞匯] aggression n.

  [經典例句] The councilor appealed to the city to take aggressive action.
  
  34. be opposed to 反對

  [大綱詞匯] oppose v.反對,反抗

  [衍生詞匯] opposed a.反對的,對抗的 be opposed to 反對 opposition n.反對,反抗;抵抗,對立

  [經典例句] We are firmly opposed to power politics.
  
  35. draw conclusion 下結論

  [大綱詞匯] conclude v.結束,終止;斷定,下結論;締結,協議 conclusion n.結束,終結;結論,推論 in conclusion 最后,總之

  [經典例句] He drew a conclusion without discussing the matter with others.
  
  36. at birth 生下來時

  [大綱詞匯] birth n.出生,分娩;出身,血統

  [經典例句] The child weighed 7 pounds at birth.
  
  37. due to 由于

  [大綱詞匯] due a. (to)應支付的;(車,船等)應到達的;應有的 due to 由于,因為

  [經典例句] The ship was late due to the heavy storm.
  
  全文翻譯
  
  性格在很大程度上是先天形成的-A型性格的父母會有A型性格的子女。但環境也一定對其有深刻的影響,因為如果競爭對父母來說很重要的話,那它也可能成為孩子生活中的一個重要因素。
  
  讓孩子吸收A型性格的一個地方是學校。學校,就其本質而言,是高度競爭的機構。很多學校采用不惜一切代價獲取成功的道德標準并通過炫耀成績來估量孩子們是否成功。目前熱衷于讓孩子與同學競爭或與時間賽跑造成了一種雙重體制,在這種體制中,競爭性的A型學生在某些方面似乎比B型的學生要好。過分地熱衷于獲勝會產生危險的后果:記住,第一位跑馬拉松的費迪皮迪茲在說完歡呼吧,我們贏了之后幾秒便倒地而死。
  
  學校里最糟糕的競爭形式就是不恰當的強調考試。很少有學校允許學生集中精力做他們能做好的事。以考試競爭這種做法的好處本身有點值得懷疑,而明知有人考試會通不過的情況下還要進行競爭,則肯定是有害的。
  
  顯然,要將所有A型孩子變成B型孩子既不現實也不可取。這個世界需要各種性格的人,一個重要職責是使孩子的性格適合將來可能從事的工作。這才是最好的管理理念。
  
  如果學校對學業的強調減少一些,也許就有更多的時間教孩子更重要的價值觀念。也許對護理職業-特別是醫療護理人員-的選擇應少注重化學成績而多關注他們是否敏感、是否有同情心。只從A型性格的人員中挑選醫生的確是個錯誤。B型性格的人非常重要,應該受到鼓勵。


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